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Principle of Aiki and its Application in Aikido and Aikijujutsu
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Morihiro Saito

Morihiro Saito Sensei. Shomen-Uchi

The application of Aiki in the techniques demonstrated by Morihiro Saito in response to Shomen-Uchi is analysed below.

Analysis

At a time of 0.36 Tori raises his arm to apply shomen-uchi which is blocked by Uke. On contact between Tori's and Uke's raised arms, Tori applies Aiki, by horizontally rotating the contact point about his rear foot so as to unbalance Uke in the direction of rotation. Tori does this by reversing the muscle torque about his rear foot so as not to balance the component of Uke's pushing force in the direction of rotation. Aiki-Parry

Analysis

At a time of 0.48 Tori raises his arm to apply shomen-uchi which is blocked by Uke. As Tori raises his arm, prior to contact, he moves his body forward in front of his front foot. On contact between Tori's and Uke's raised arms, Tori applies Aiki, by horizontally rotating the contact point about his front foot so as to unbalance Uke in the direction of rotation. Tori does this by reversing the muscle torque about his front foot so as not to balance Uke's pushing force in the direction of rotation. Aiki-Parry

Analysis

At a time of 7.47 Uke raises his arm and steps forward to apply shomen-uchi. Tori raises his arm to apparently block Ukes' strike. Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki, by delivering an atemi to Ukes' upper body. This causes Uke to straighten his body and by doing so reverse the muscle torque about the ankle of his front foot, unbalancing Uke to the front due to his forward momentum. Aiki-Feint

Analysis

At a time of 7.57 Uke raises his arm and steps forward to apply shomen-uchi. Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki, by delivering an atemi with his left arm, from the side, towards Ukes' head. This causes Uke to straighten his body and by doing so reverse the muscle torque about the ankle of his front foot, unbalancing Uke to the front due to his forward momentum. Aiki-Feint

Analysis

In the techniques from 8.13 to the end of the video Tori raises and extends his arm to induce Uke to block the shomen-uchi. On contact between the raised arms, Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki, by Tori withdrawing his arm whilst remaining in contact with Ukes' arm. This causes Uke to follow Tori's arm by reversing the muscle torque about the ankle of his front foot, unbalancing Uke to the front due to his forward momentum. Aiki-Feint

Morihiro Saito Sensei. Tsuki

The application of Aiki in the techniques demonstrated by Morihiro Saito in response to Tsuki is analysed below. 

Analysis

In this video Uke steps forward to apply Tsuki to Tori. Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki by applying an upward atemi as Uke steps forward, causing Uke to straighten his body by reversing the muscle torque about the ankle of his front foot. Uke then becomes unbalanced to the front by his own momentum.  Aiki-Feint
Uke interprets Tori's upward arm movements as an attack and takes evasive action to minimise contact by straightening his body instead of bending it to recover his balance.

Morihiro Saito demonstrates techniques from O-Sensei's 1938 "Budo" technical manual

The application of Aiki in the techniques demonstrated by Morihiro Saito is analysed below. 

Analysis

At a time of 1.42 Uke grabs the back of Tori's wrist. Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki by first moving his body/wrist towards Uke and then lifting his wrist. Tori's forward movement induces Uke to momentarily relax his upper body and to prepare his lower body to push back. Consequently, the muscle torque about Uke's rear foot joint, due to him pushing, is in the opposite direction to that required to resist Tori raising his wrist. Uke is unbalanced to the front. Aiki-Lead

Analysis

At a time of 2.15 Tori extends his left arm for Uke to grab. Tori induces Uke to apply Aiki by withdrawing his arm just as Uke is about to take hold of his arm. This action induces Uke to reverse the muscle torque about  the ankle of his front foot, so as to follow Tori's arm, causing Uke to become unbalanced to the front by his forward momentum. Aiki-Feint